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Daily Current Affairs – Prepare it on daily basis and at the end of the week (Saturday) revise them.
Monthly current affairs – read them daily in 4 day slot. For example : if you are preparing the whole July month current affairs, today just read 1st-4th July current affairs, then tomorrow you will read 5th-8th July current affairs. In this way on the fourth day you have to revise all the three slots i.e. 1st-12th july
will have to ultimately depend upon your common sense which can be acquired through reading newspaper daily. So, don’t chase too many facts and figures
Reading current affairs daily makes you aware of what’s happening around and prevents you from last minute mugging.
In veterinary anatomy and physiology, the major bones and joints of animals include the skull, spine, pelvis, limbs (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula), and ribcage.
The digestive system of animals includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. The main function of the digestive system is to break down food, absorb nutrients, and eliminate waste.
The respiratory system of animals includes the nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. The main function of the respiratory system is to provide oxygen to the body’s cells and remove carbon dioxide.
The circulatory system of animals includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The main function of the circulatory system is to pump blood throughout the body, providing oxygen and nutrients to the body’s cells and removing waste products.
The urinary system of animals includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The main function of the urinary system is to filter waste products from the blood and eliminate them in the form of urine.
The reproductive system of animals includes the gonads (testes or ovaries), ducts, and external genitalia. The main function of the reproductive system is to produce and transport sex cells (sperm or eggs) and to support the development of a fetus during pregnancy.
The nervous system of animals includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The main function of the nervous system is to coordinate and control the body’s functions and responses to internal and external stimuli.
The endocrine system of animals includes the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, and gonads (testes or ovaries). The main function of the endocrine system is to produce and secrete hormones that regulate various bodily functions, such as metabolism, growth and development, and response to stress.
Infectious diseases of livestock and poultry can be caused by different types of infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites (both external and internal).
Bacterial diseases of livestock and poultry include Anthrax, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Black Quarter, Mastitis, Tuberculosis, Johne’s Disease, Brucellosis, Pullorum Disease, and fowl cholera.
Viral diseases of livestock and poultry include Peste des Petits Ruminants, Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Poultry Pox, Rabies, Rinderpest, Infectious Bursal Disease, Infectious Laryngotracheitis, and Gumboro Disease.
Parasitic diseases of livestock and poultry include Ascariasis, Strongylosis, Amphistomiasis, mange, ticks, and lice.
Fungal diseases of livestock and poultry include ringworm.
Prevention and control measures for infectious diseases of livestock and poultry include vaccination, good hygiene practices, and proper management of the animals, such as proper feeding, housing, and sanitation. The use of veterinary drugs and biosecurity measures such as quarantining new animals, isolation of sick animals, and regular health monitoring of the herd and flock will also help to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases.
Veterinary pharmacy involves the preparation and dispensing of drugs for animals. Drugs used in veterinary medicine come in various forms, such as powders, mixtures, lotions, ointments, pastes, tablets, electuaries, enemas, tinctures, boluses, and emulsions.
The routes of administration of drugs in veterinary medicine include oral, parenteral (subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous).
Standards for drug manufacturing in veterinary pharmacy include the Indian Pharmacopoeia (I.P), British Pharmacopoeia (B.P), and British Veterinary Codex (B.Vet.C). These standards provide guidelines for the quality, purity, and potency of drugs used in veterinary medicine.
When dispensing drugs, it’s important to weigh and measure the correct dosage. Dosage units may include milligrams (mg), micrograms (mcg), or other units such as milliliters (ml) or cubic centimeters (cc). The correct dosage and route of administration will depend on the species and size of the animal, as well as the specific drug being used.
The fundamentals of animal reproduction and gynecology include the study of the genital organs of different livestock species and their reproductive processes.
The genital organs of different livestock species include the testes in males and the ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females. Sexual maturity, or the point at which an animal is capable of reproducing, varies by species and can be influenced by factors such as genetics and nutrition.
The estrus cycle, also known as the heat or breeding cycle, is the period in which a female animal is receptive to mating. The duration and timing of the estrus cycle vary by species.
Gestation is the period of pregnancy, during which the fertilized egg develops into a fetus. Pregnancy diagnosis can be done using various methods such as ultrasound, blood tests and hormone assay.
Parturition, or childbirth, is the process of giving birth to offspring. Infertility and sterility can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetic defects, poor nutrition, or disease and can be treated with various methods such as hormonal therapy and artificial insemination.
Common reproductive disorders in livestock include dystocia, which refers to difficulty giving birth, and retention of placenta, which occurs when the placenta is not expelled after birth. Both of these conditions can lead to serious health problems for the animal and can be treated with veterinary care and management practices.
Artificial insemination (AI) is a method of breeding animals in which semen is collected from a male animal and introduced into the reproductive tract of a female animal using a variety of techniques.
The advantages of AI include the ability to improve genetic potential of the herd or flock, increased herd/flock management options, disease control, and cost-effectiveness.
Preparation of Artificial insemination includes training of personnel, Collection of semen from stud males, preparation of extenders and diluents, and preservation of semen by freezing.
Semen collection can be done by either electroejaculation or by using artificial vagina (AV). Semen can be collected from the male animal in various forms, such as liquid or frozen form. Frozen semen can be stored in liquid nitrogen containers and thawed prior to use.
Heat detection in different livestock species is done by observing the physical and behavioral changes in animals during the estrous cycle.
Insemination techniques vary depending on the species, and include cervical insemination, intrauterine insemination, and laparoscopic insemination. Precautions for successful AI include proper timing, proper technique, and proper management of the animals before, during, and after insemination.
Follow-up of AI includes pregnancy diagnosis, monitoring of the animals for any complications, and management of the animals post-insemination.
Surgery is a branch of veterinary medicine that involves the treatment of injuries and diseases through invasive procedures.
General surgical conditions in animals include abscesses, wounds, and fractures. These conditions can be treated through surgical intervention, such as incision and drainage of abscesses, debridement of wounds, and reduction and fixation of fractures.
Antiseptics and disinfectants are substances that are used to prevent or reduce the growth of microorganisms on the skin and in the environment. They are used before, during, and after surgery to reduce the risk of infection.
Pre-operative and post-operative surgical care are important for the well-being and recovery of the animal. Pre-operative care includes things such as fasting, administering premedication, and preparing the animal for surgery, while post-operative care includes things like pain management, monitoring vital signs, and providing proper wound care.
A surgical pack is a set of instruments and supplies that are used during surgery. Proper preparation of a surgical pack is important to ensure that all necessary instruments and supplies are readily available during the procedure.
Sterilization techniques are methods used to eliminate or reduce the number of microorganisms on a surface or in a solution to a level that is considered safe for the intended use. Sterilization techniques include autoclaving, chemical sterilization, and dry heat sterilization.
Castration is the surgical removal of the testicles of a male animal. Different bandaging techniques can be used to protect the surgical site and support the healing process. These include simple bandages, splints, and casts.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases in animals.
Health is defined as a state of optimal physical, mental, and social well-being, while disease is an abnormal condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body or mind. Symptoms are the signs and complaints that are reported by an animal or observed by a veterinarian, indicating the presence of disease.
Physical and clinical examination of animals is an important aspect of veterinary medicine. This includes examination of the animal’s body condition, vital signs, and specific systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, liver, respiratory system, skin, urogenital tract, nervous system, and metabolic system. Collection of history, such as the animal’s background, vaccination history, and any previous illnesses, can also provide valuable information for diagnosis and treatment.
General diagnosis of diseases in animals involves the use of various diagnostic tools such as laboratory tests, imaging, and endoscopy, as well as a thorough physical examination and history. Treatment of diseases can include medication, surgery, and other therapeutic interventions, while control of diseases can involve measures such as vaccination, quarantine, and biosecurity.
Gastrointestinal tract diseases can include diarrhea, constipation, and stomach ulcers. Liver diseases can include hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. Respiratory system diseases can include pneumonia, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Skin diseases can include mange, eczema, and ringworm.
Urogenital tract diseases can include urinary tract infections, cystitis and nephritis. Nervous system diseases can include seizures, degenerative diseases, and tumors. Metabolic and deficiency diseases can include diabetes, hypothyroidism and anemia.
Veterinary biologicals are products that are used in veterinary medicine to prevent, treat, or diagnose diseases in animals. These include vaccines, antisera, diagnostic kits, and other biological products. They play a crucial role in veterinary practice by helping to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and protect the health of animals.
Examples of veterinary biologicals include vaccines for diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, rabies, and avian influenza, as well as diagnostic kits for diseases such as brucellosis and leptospirosis.
Handling and storage of veterinary biologicals is important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Proper handling and storage can include measures such as maintaining the correct temperature, protecting the products from light and other environmental factors, and properly labeling and tracking the products.
A vaccination schedule is a schedule of when animals should receive certain vaccinations. The schedule can vary depending on the species, age, and overall health status of the animal, as well as the specific vaccine being used. For livestock, it’s important to vaccinate animals against common diseases that affect their species, such as clostridial, Pasteurellosis and for poultry it’s important to vaccinate against diseases such as avian influenza, fowl pox, and Newcastle disease. It’s also important to keep records of the vaccinations given to each animal, to ensure that they receive the proper boosters and to monitor the animal’s immunity status.
Veterinary first aid and clinical management involve providing immediate care to animals that are injured or ill, as well as managing their ongoing care and treatment.
Restraining of various livestock species is important in order to safely perform a physical examination or administer medication. Different techniques and equipment may be used depending on the size and behavior of the animal.
Registration of cases is the process of recording all the necessary information about an animal, such as their name, owner, and medical history, in order to keep track of their treatment and progress.
History taking is the process of gathering information about an animal’s medical history, including previous illnesses, vaccinations, and medications. This information can be used to help diagnose and treat the current condition.
Recording of body temperature, pulse, and respiration are vital signs that can indicate the animal’s overall health and can be used to monitor their condition.
Methods of medication in veterinary first aid and clinical management include oral and parenteral administration, such as through subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injection.
First aid measures in emergency cases can include providing basic life support, stabilizing the animal’s condition, and administering emergency medications.
Collection and dispatch of clinical samples, such as blood or urine, can be used for laboratory testing to help diagnose and monitor the animal’s condition.
Analytical laboratory techniques are methods used to analyze and measure chemical compounds and other substances in samples. These techniques are used in veterinary medicine to diagnose and monitor diseases, as well as to evaluate the safety and quality of food products.
Common equipment used in laboratory analysis includes centrifuges, microscopes, spectrophotometers, chromatographs, and balances. Guidelines for handling chemicals and equipment include proper labeling, storage, and disposal, as well as the use of personal protective equipment.
Proper disposal of laboratory wastes is also important in order to minimize the risk of environmental contamination and protect the health of laboratory personnel.
Sampling and sample preparation for chemical analysis involve the collection of a representative sample from the animal or food product, and the preparation of that sample for analysis.
Sample preparation can include things such as homogenization, extraction, or concentration of the sample. Proper sampling techniques and sample preparation are important to ensure accurate and reliable results from the analysis.
There are several techniques used to sterilize laboratory chemicals and glassware, including:
- Autoclaving: using high heat and pressure to sterilize equipment and materials
- Filtration: using filters with small pore sizes to remove microorganisms
- Chemical sterilization: using chemicals such as ethanol or bleach to kill microorganisms
Media preparation involves creating a nutrient-rich environment for microorganisms to grow in. This can include preparing liquid or solid media, adjusting pH levels, and adding specific growth factors or nutrients.
Sero-diagnosis is a method of identifying the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. This can include techniques such as ELISA, Western blot, and RIA. These tests are often used to diagnose infectious diseases or to monitor the effectiveness of a treatment.
Skin scrapings for parasitological examination should be collected using a scalpel or a sterile needle. The scraping should be done in an area where the parasite is suspected to be present, such as near a burrow or bite wound. The scraping should be collected in a clean container, such as a microscope slide or a sterile container. The container should be labeled with the patient’s name, date of collection, and location of the scraping. The material should be preserved in a cool and dry place until it can be dispatched to the laboratory for examination. It is important to note that proper collection, preservation, and dispatch of the material is essential for accurate results.
Dairy farming is an important agricultural industry that involves the breeding, raising, and management of dairy animals such as cattle and buffaloes for the production of milk and milk products. There are several advantages of dairy farming, including the provision of a source of income and nutrition for farmers and their families, as well as the production of milk and milk products for the general population.
Some of the important breeds of cattle and buffaloes for dairy farming include Jersey, Holstein, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, and Guernsey for cattle, and Murrah, Jaffarabadi, and Surti for buffaloes. Exotic dairy cattle breeds such as Holstein-Friesian and Jersey are also important as they have high milk production potential.
Crossbreeding is an important aspect of dairy farming, as it involves breeding different breeds of cattle and buffaloes to produce offspring with desirable characteristics such as high milk production and resistance to disease. Crossbred cows and upgraded buffaloes have several advantages, including higher milk production and better resistance to disease.
The ideal dairy animal should have high milk production potential, good reproductive performance, and good health and resistance to disease. Dairy farm practices include feeding and management of different classes of dairy animals, milking methods, and clean milk production. Feeding and management practices should be designed to meet the specific nutritional needs of different classes of dairy animals, such as lactating cows, dry cows, and heifers.
Proper housing, identification, and management of dairy animals is also important for the success of a dairy farm. Calf rearing, heifer rearing, and management of high-yielding cows and buffaloes are also important aspects of dairy farm management. The composition and chemical properties of milk, farm records and their maintenance, bio gas production, and the economics of dairy farming are also important considerations.
Marketing of dairy cattle, milk, and milk products, and important dairy products such as cheese, butter, and yogurt are also important for the success of a dairy farm. Milk cooperatives, Milk Chilling, Pasteurisation in milk are also important aspects of dairy farming.
The principles of management of meat animals involve the breeding, raising, and management of animals such as sheep, goats, swine, and rabbits for the production of meat.
These animals are important for their nutritional value and for providing a source of income for farmers and their families.
Popular breeds of sheep for meat production include the Suffolk, Hampshire, and Dorset Horn. Popular breeds of goats for meat production include the Boer and Spanish.
Popular breeds of swine for meat production include the Yorkshire, Hampshire, and Duroc.
Mating practices, feeding and general management of meat animals are crucial for their growth and development.
Feeding should be designed to meet the specific nutritional needs of different classes of meat animals, such as growing animals and lactating animals.
Care and management of pregnant and lactating animals are also important for the success of a meat animal operation. This includes providing proper nutrition and veterinary care, as well as proper housing. Rearing of lambs, kids, and piglets is also an important aspect of meat animal management.
Housing of sheep, goats, and swine should be designed to meet the specific needs of the animals, such as ventilation, temperature, and space. Debugging, docking, castration, vaccination, deworming, and deticking are also important aspects of meat animal management.
Marketing of live meat animals is an important aspect of the meat animal industry. Livestock insurance is also important for protecting farmers against potential losses due to disease or other unforeseen events.
Livestock farming is the practice of raising and managing animals for meat, milk, eggs, and other products. This is different from mixed farming, which involves the cultivation of crops and the raising of animals on the same farm.
Record keeping is an important aspect of livestock farm management, as it allows farmers to track the performance of their animals, monitor their health, and plan for future growth and development. This includes keeping records of the number of animals, their breeds, ages, and weights, as well as their feeding and veterinary care.
Farm inventory is also an important aspect of livestock farm management, as it allows farmers to keep track of their stock of feed, medicines, and other supplies. This helps them to plan for future needs and avoid running out of critical supplies.
Marketing of livestock and livestock products is an important aspect of the livestock industry. This includes identifying the target market, determining the best distribution channels, and developing strategies for promoting and selling the products. Cooperative societies are organizations that are owned and controlled by its members who come together to achieve common economic, social and cultural goals. These societies plays a vital role in marketing of livestock and livestock products as they help farmers to pool their resources and negotiate better prices for their products.
The principles of livestock feeding involve providing the appropriate amount and type of feed to meet the nutritional needs of different classes of animals at different stages of their life. Feeding is an important aspect of livestock farming, as it directly affects the health, growth, and productivity of the animals.
There are several different types of feeds and fodders that can be used in livestock feeding, including cultivated fodder, legumes, roughages, and concentrates. Cultivated fodder includes grasses and other plants that are grown specifically for livestock feed, while legumes are plants that are high in protein and are often used as a protein supplement for livestock. Roughages are high-fiber feeds, such as hay, that are used to promote healthy digestion in livestock, and concentrates are feeds that are high in energy, such as grains and oilseeds.
Chaffing of fodder is a process of cutting the roughages into small pieces to increase the surface area for better digestibility. The preparation of concentrate mixture is done by mixing different concentrates in specific proportion to meet the nutritional requirement of the animal. Formulation of rations is a process of determining the proportion of different feeds and fodders that should be fed to an animal to meet its nutritional needs.
Fodder conservation is an important aspect of livestock feeding, and includes methods such as hay and silage making to preserve the nutritional value of the feed for long-term use. Common crop residues such as straw, corn stalks, and cotton stalks can also be used as feed for livestock. Important fodder trees include Leucaena, Gliricidia, and Calliandra, which are high in protein and can be used as a supplement to the feed.
Animal feeding and drought and natural calamities is an important aspect of livestock feeding. During drought and natural calamities, proper feed storage is important to ensure the availability of feed for the animals. Thumb rules for Livestock feeding include providing the appropriate amount and type of feed to meet the nutritional needs of the animals and avoiding overfeeding. Urea treated paddy straw is a method of increasing the protein content of straw by treating it with urea, making it a more nutritious feed for livestock.
Pet and zoo animal management involves the care and management of animals that are kept as pets or in zoos. Common pet animals include dogs, cats, birds, fish, and small mammals such as hamsters and guinea pigs. Each of these animals has different needs and utility, for example, dogs are often used as companions, while cats are often kept for their ability to catch mice and other pests.
Common breeds of dogs include the Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, and Bulldog. Handling and restraining of pet animals is an important aspect of pet and zoo animal management, as it allows for safe and efficient care of the animals. This includes proper handling techniques and the use of appropriate equipment such as muzzles and harnesses.
Feeding and management of dogs is an important aspect of pet and zoo animal management. This includes providing the appropriate amount and type of food to meet the nutritional needs of the animals, as well as ensuring that they have access to clean water and appropriate housing.
Important zoo animals include lions, tigers, elephants, and primates. Care, management, and health cover of zoo animals is an important aspect of zoo animal management, as it ensures the well-being and safety of the animals. This includes providing appropriate veterinary care, nutrition, and housing.
Vaccination schedule and deworming are also important aspects of pet and zoo animal management. Vaccinations are given to animals to protect them from diseases, while deworming is done to prevent and treat internal parasites.
Administration of medicines in different routes in dogs and cats is also an important aspect of pet and zoo animal management. Different routes of administration include oral, topical, and injectable. It is important to follow the proper techniques and guidelines for administering medicines to animals to ensure their safety and effectiveness.
Avian hatchery management involves the breeding, incubation, and care of poultry, such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys. The layout of a hatchery includes the areas for incubation, hatching, and chick rearing. Incubators are the equipment used for hatching the eggs, setters are the incubators used for eggs in the setting stage, and hatchery incubation management is the process of controlling the environmental conditions and taking care of the eggs during the incubation period.
Hatching eggs are collected from breeder flocks, selected for their quality and stored under appropriate conditions. Fumigation is the process of using chemicals to eliminate pests and diseases that may be present in the hatchery. The requirement of incubation includes maintaining the appropriate temperature, humidity, ventilation, and turning of the eggs.
Candling is the process of holding the egg up to a light source to see the development of the embryo inside the egg. It is used to check the fertility of the eggs and the quality of the embryos. Sexing, vaccination, grading of chicks, dubbing, and toy clipping are the process of identifying the sex of the chicks, protecting them from diseases, separating them based on their quality, removing the comb and wattle of male chicks, and clipping the wing tip feathers of chicks to prevent them from flying.
Proper management of the hatchery, including appropriate environmental conditions, sanitation, and disease control, is essential for the successful hatching and raising of poultry. This includes proper care and management of the eggs and chicks, as well as monitoring for signs of disease and taking appropriate action to prevent and control outbreaks.
Poultry management involves the breeding, raising, and management of poultry such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys for the production of eggs, meat, and other products. Poultry farming has several advantages, including providing a source of income and nutrition for farmers and their families, as well as the production of eggs and meat for the general population. The present status of poultry industry is growing rapidly as the demand for poultry products is increasing globally.
Different breeds of poultry are used for different purposes, such as egg production or meat production. The system of poultry rearing can be extensive, semi-intensive, or intensive, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Extensive systems involve keeping poultry in open fields with minimal human intervention, while intensive systems involve keeping poultry in confined areas with high levels of human intervention.
Poultry farm equipment includes items such as feeders, drinkers, nesting boxes, and brooders. Breeding management involves selecting the appropriate breeds, controlling breeding cycles, and monitoring breeding performance. Feeding and management of different classes of poultry includes providing the appropriate amount and type of feed to meet the nutritional needs of different classes of poultry, such as laying hens, broilers, and chicks. Feed supplements, additives, and mixing of poultry feeds are also important aspects of poultry management.
Sanitation, disinfection, and disease control are also important aspects of poultry management. This includes measures such as regular cleaning and disinfection of the poultry house and equipment, as well as monitoring for signs of disease and taking appropriate action to prevent and control outbreaks. Reconstitution of vaccines and their preservation, routes of vaccination, designing of vaccination program are also important for disease control.
Litter management and handling of eggs are also important aspects of poultry management. Litter management involves providing a clean and comfortable environment for the poultry, and handling of eggs involves collecting, grading, and storing eggs in a manner that preserves their quality. Farm records, record keeping are also important for monitoring the performance of the poultry farm and making informed decisions. Feeding management of other avian species like quails, turkeys, ducks are also important.
Economics of poultry farming is an important aspect, which includes the cost of feed, labor, and equipment, as well as the income generated from the sale of eggs and meat. Marketing of poultry eggs and chicken meat is also an important aspect of poultry management, which includes identifying target markets, determining the best distribution channels, and developing strategies for promoting and selling the products.
Meat production and handling involves the selection, care, and slaughter of animals for meat consumption. The selection of ideal meat animals is important for ensuring high yields of desirable cuts of meat. Optimum for slaughter is usually when the animal reaches maturity, and common instruments used to handle meat animals include cattle prods, stunners, and knives. Dressing percentage refers to the amount of meat obtained from an animal after slaughter and processing.
Transportation of meat animals should be done carefully to minimize stress and injury. Proper pre-slaughter handling is essential for ensuring the quality and safety of the meat. Methods of slaughter include stunning, bleeding, and evisceration. Major cuts of meat and their yields vary depending on the species of animal, but typically include cuts such as the loin, rib, and chuck.
An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for meat. It should have optimum facilities and principles of meat preservation, including proper sanitation, temperature control, and aging rooms for different species of livestock. Aging of meat can improve the flavor and texture of the meat, but it is a process that varies depending on the species of animal.