VILLAGE HORTICULTURE ASSISTANT

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EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS

1) Must Possess 4 years B.Sc Horticulture / B.Sc (Hons) Horticulture of a Recognized
University in the State (or) any other University accredited by the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Govt., of
India, New Delhi.
2) Must Possess 2 years Diploma in Horticulture (from Dr. YSRHU / ANGRAU
recognized)

RELAXATION IN EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS

3) B.Sc or M.Sc with Horticulture as one of the optional subjects from any recognized
University in Andhra Pradesh.
4) B.Sc (BZC) from any recognized University in Andhra Pradesh.

 

SYLLABUS

Written examination (Objective Type) No. of questions Duration (minutes) Maximum Marks
Part- A : General Studies and mental ability
50
50
50
Part-B: Horticulture
100
100
100
TOTAL
150
150
150

Note:- For each correct answer 1 mark will be awarded and each wrong answer will carry 0.25 negative mark.

PART- A
GENERAL STUDIES AND MENTAL ABILITY
1. General Mental ability and reasoning.
2. Quantitative aptitude including data interpretation.
3. General English.
4. Current affairs of regional, national and International importance.
5. General Science and its applications to the day to day life, Contemporary
development in science and Technology and information Technology.
6. History & Culture of India with specific focus on AP.
7. Indian polity and governance: constitutional issues, 73/74th Amendments,
public policy, reforms ad centre – state relations with specific reference to
Andhra Pradesh.
8. Society, Social justice, rights issues.
9. Physical geography of Indian sub-continent and Andhra Pradesh.
10. Key welfare & development schemes of Government of Andhra Pradesh.

 

PART-B
HORTICULTURE 

1. FUNDAMENTALS OF HORTICULTURE
Horticulture – Definition – importance – divisions of horticulture – Horticultural
zones in A.P. and India – Influence of climate on Horticultural crops – effects of
environmental stress – its management – Selection of site – steps in orchard
establishment – methods of irrigation – training and pruning – Flowering –
stages of fruit drop – Reasons and prevention of fruit drop – Fruit thinning –
advantages and disadvantages – unfruitfulness – reasons and remedies of
unfruitfulness – growth regulators – definition – functions – classification –
uses of growth regulators in horticulture – methods of application of growth

2. PLANT PROPAGATION AND NURSERY MANAGEMENT
Plant propagation – Definition – principles of Plant propagation – methods of
propagation – structures and media used in Plant propagation – sexual or seed
propagation – importance – vegetative propagation – importance –
Propagation through cuttings – layering importance and methods – selection of
root stocks and scion – types of budding – role of root stocks in fruit
production – suitability of root stocks – factors influencing the selection of site
for nursery establishment – Nursery management – precautions – characters of
good quality nursery plants

3. OLERICULTURE
Food security importance of vegetable in Indian economy and nutritional value
Olericulture – varieties soil climate requirements – seed treatment – nursery
transplanting – after care – fertilizer management – inter cultivation – irrigation
harvesting storage – nutritional deficiency symptoms – use of growth
regulators in the following crops – fruit vegetables (tomato , brinjal, bendi,
chillies) – cucurbitaceous vegetables (bottle guard, bitter guard, musk melon,
water melon, squashes and pumpkins) – leguminaceous vegetables (cluster
bean, french bean, garden bean, cowpea and peas) – cole crops (cabbage,
cauliflower) – root vegetables (radish, carrot, beetroot and turnip) – bulbs &
tubers (onion, garlic, potato, sweet potato, tapioca, elephant foot yarn,
colocasia) – leafy vegetables (amaranths, menthi, palak, spinach, hibiscus) –
perennial vegetables (parawal, drumstick, curry leaf, coccinea).

4. FUNDAMENTALS OF SOIL SCIENCE
Soils – rocks and minerals – soil formation soil structure – soil profile – soil
physical(bulk density, partical density, porosity), biological(immobilization and
mineralization nitrogen fixation CN ratio role of soil microbes and their
management) and chemical(soil particles, nature and properties, cation
exchange capacity, anion exchange capacity, pH and salinity) properties –
types of soils in AP – problem soils and their management – essentiality of
nutrients – nutrient deficiency symptoms and their management – soil fertility
management – suitable soils for Horticulture

5. FARM POWER, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND STRUCTURES 

Sources of farm power – advantages and disadvantages – types of agriculture

engines – principles and mode of work – tractors and power tillers
classifications – primary and secondary tillage – implements – plough, danthi,
gorru, plant protection equipment – sprayers and dusters – tools for inter
cultivation – harvesters for mango and sapota – post harvest tools (blanches,
cleaners, graders, sorters) storage of foods – cold storage – field structures –
zero energy cool chamber – godowns and fruit and vegetable storage – green
house technology – construction features – use in horticulture – mode of work
and management

6. FARM MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL FINANCE AND MARKETING 

Farm labour and machinery – farm accounts – definition – good farm account
features – advantages of farm accounts – maintenance of basic accounts –
preparation of farm accounts, balance sheet – Agricultural finance – loan
classification sanction of loan – repayment schemes for backlog people – DIR,
IRDP financing agencies – RBI – NABARD their role – commercial banks – lead
bank scheme – loaning procedure – crop insurance – Agricultural marketing –
classifications of markets – based on competitions – functions of markets –
problems and their remedies in marketing – regulated market – definition –
functions – advantages – cooperative marketing – NAFED, MARKFED, single
window – definition – functions – advantages – warehousing corporation –
SWC, CWC – definition – functions – advantages – FCI, International marketing.

7. TROPICAL FRUIT CULTURE 

Area – production – importance – orchard management – nutritive value –
origin – distribution – species – varieties – root stocks – high density planting –
climate soil – layout – training and pruning – nutrition – irrigation – inter
cultivation – maturity – harvesting – grading – packing and storage for the
crops MANGO, BANANA, CITRUS, PINEAPPLE, GUAVA, PAPAYA AND SAPOTA 

8. SPICES AND PLANTATION CROPS 

Introduction – importance – origin – distribution – botanical classification –
species – varieties – propagation – selection of cuttings – climate soil –
planting after care – fertilizer management – inter cultivation – training and
pruning – flowering – fruit set, fruit development – maturity harvesting –
purification methods – marketing and production of valued added products
for SPICES (BLACK PEPPER, CARDAMOM, TURMERIC, GINGER, CORIENDER ,
FENUGREEK), PLANTATION CROPS (COCONUT, CASHEW NUT, OIL PALM,
ARECANUT, BETELVINE, COCOA, COFFEA)

9. VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 

Methods of preparing value added products – jam, jelly, marmalade, candies,
crystallized and glazed fruit preserves, pickles preserves – ketchup, sass, totifruiti syrup, fresh fruit juices, squash and cordials, fermented beverages –
making methods. 

10. MANURES AND FERTILIZERS 

Organic Manures – definition, characters, classification – bulky organic
manures (FYM, Compost, Vermicompost) – method of making, nature and
useful nutrients– concentrated organic manures (oil cakes, bone meal) – green
manure crops – characters – decomposition – CN ratio – Nutrient availability –
Advantages and problems – bio gas plant – use of efluents from bio gas plant
as manure – FERTILIZERS – definition, characters, classification – essentiality
of macro nutrients – nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium
and sulpher – suitability of fertilizers to soils and crops – essentiality of micro
nutrients – differences between manures and fertilizers – Bio fertilizers –
definition, characters & classification – azolla, BGA, rhizobium, azotobacter,
phosphobacteria – methods of using them – symptoms of nutritional
deficiencies in horticultural crops their correction – factors influencing fertilizer
use efficiency – integrated nutrient management for important horticultural
crops.

11.DISEASES OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 

Important diseases, causal organisms, disease symptoms and spread in crops,
citrus(acid lime, orange), mango, guava, sapota, papaya, banana, grapes,
pomegranate, ber, chilli, brinjal, bendi, root crops, tomato, onion, coriander,
cruciferous vegetables, cucurbitaceous vegetables, beans, peas, betelvine,
black pepper, turmeric, coffea, coconut, oilpalm, rose, chrysanthemum,
jasmine, marigold, tuberose, crosandra, aster and gladiolus – FUNGICIDES –
classification – nature of work – methods of using them – dosage – toxicity –
disease management through important fungisites

12. SOIL AND WATER ENGINEERING 

Measurement of land for ornamental gardens – fruit and vegetable gardens
and landscaping in parks – chain survey – trigonametrical survey –
measurement of regular and irregular shaped sites – leveling –water lifting
methods from deep soil – types of pumps – centrifugal pump, deep well
turbine and submersible pump – calculation of volume of water in irrigation
canals and pipes – irrigation methods – surface irrigation – drip and sprinkler
irrigation – soil erosion control and protection methods – water conservation
through digging of pits – removal of silt from tanks – soil and water
conservation technology – prevention of water losses in canals and improving
water uses efficiency.

13. SUB TROPICAL AND ARID FRUIT CULTURE
Nutritive value – classification – species – varietal identification – soil and water
requirements, root stocks – propagation methods – layouts – training – pruning
– fertilizer management – irrigation – inter cultivation – problems in cultivation
– flowering and fruit set – maturity indices, yield, grading, packing, transport
and storage methods for the sub tropical and arid fruit crops – Grapes,
Pomagranate, Ber, Litchi, Amla, Jamun, Custard Apple, Fig, Palsa, Tamarind,
Passion Fruit, Karonda

14. COMMERCIAL FLORICULTURE

Growing methods, importance, origin, classification, species, varieties, soil
climatic requirements, propagation, spacing, irrigation, fertilizers,
Intercultivation, training and pruning special horticultural practices use of
growth regulators, determination of harvesting stage, harvest, yield post
harvest methods and flower drying methods for important commercial flower
crops – Rose, Crossandra, Jasmin Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, Michelia, China
Aster, Marrigold, Anthurium, Carnation, Gerbera, Dahlia And Orchids.

15. SEED PRODUCTION, CERTIFICATION AND VARIETAL TESTING 

Seed production – objective – variety – definition – maintenance of varieties –
production of nucleus and breeders seed in self pollinated, cross pollinated and
vegetatively propagated crops – seed production in vegetables – testing
genetic – purity in seeds – general principles of seed production, production of
different types of seeds – soil requirement isolation distance – planting ratio,
rouging – harvest and post harvest management, packing and storage of seed
–seed certification objective – standards – testing seed quality – points to be
considered for determining seed quality – germination tests – grow out tests –
seed health – seed quality test in crop varieties – types of seed production
(breeder seed, foundation seed, certified seed) – seed quality – new seed
policy – suitable places for vegetable seed production. 

16. PEST MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND APICULTURE 

Identification of insects with horticultural importance – different orders – insect
control and management – integrated plant protection – non insect pests –
mites, rats, monkeys, birds, squirrels and their management – study of
Acaricides, nematicides, rodenticides – identification of important insect pests,
symptoms, nature of feeding, life cycle and management in the crops MANGO,
CITRUS (ORANGE, ACID LIME), CASHEW NUTS, GRAPES, POMAGRANATE,
COCONUT, COCOA, BER, GUAVA, SAPOTA, BANANA, PAPAYA, CHILLI,
BRINJAL, BHENDI, TOMATO, BEANS, CUCURBITS, TURMERIC, ROSE,
CHRYSANTHEMUM, JASMINE AND TUBEROSE – pesticides – definition –
classification – toxicity – pesticides residues –methods of application – effect of
dosages – APICULTURE – species of honey bees – characters – behavior –
swarming – division of communities – management bee hive – types tools for
apiculture – poisonous effects bees enemies of honey bees – disease and their
control – artificial maturity and collection of honey.

17. POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS 

Post harvest importance in horticulture – maturity of fruit vegetable –
harvesting handling – grading – pre harvest factors and points determining
posts harvest quality – physical and chemical changes during ripening – delay
of ripening – post harvest treatment – quality standard storage methods for
local and distant marketing – methods of packing – cold storage.

18. ORNAMENTAL GARDENING AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 

Importance – definition – scope, prospects of ornamental gardening land scape
architecture and interior gardening – styles of gardening – components – basic
principles – ornamental garden models for home, schools, colleges, public
buildings, parks and rural areas – garden features – lawn, flower beds, hedges,
path ways, fences, compound wall, steps, statues, water canal, water pool,
water fall, terraces, rockery, arches, pergola, topiary, interior gardening,
principles and plans – road side planting of trees, shrubs, climbers, ground
covering plants – selection planting management – ornamental foliage plants –
lawn making and protection – water plants, bonsai principles – flower
decorations – principles and style – rangoli, floral ball – dry flower decorations
and flower arrangements.

19. MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC CROPS CULTIVATION
Origin, history, area, production, importance, uses, varieties, soil water
requirements propagation, planting, inter cultivation, fertilizer, irrigation,
training and pruning, harvest and processing in the medicinal (Dioscorea,
Sarpagandha, kasivanga, Pyrethrum, Catharanthus, Poppy, Aswagandha, Amla,
Aloevera, Cassia, Plantago, Isabgul and tulsi ) and aromatic crops (kamakshi
kasupu, lemon grass, rosha grass, paneer, vetiver, davanam, nilgiri, pudina,
vanilla, rose and jasmine)

20. PROTECTED CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS.
Protected cultivation, introduction, importance, green house, poly house,
definition, points to remember while construction, advantages over conventional open field cultivation – problems in green house – structures, site,
types sizes of green houses – soil less media, sterilization – light and air –
ventilation – fertigation – nutrient management through water soluble
fertilizers in green houses – green house cultivation of rose, gerbera, tomato
and capsicum varieties correction of nutrient deficiencies of plant protection

21.DRYLAND HORTICULTURE AND WATER SHED MANAGEMENT 

Dry land Horticulture – definition – soil and water management – dry climate
zones – classification – horticulture research station in dry land – problems in
dry land horticulture – low rain fall areas – soil water management – types and
factors influencing – soil erosion – mechanical methods and soil conservation
through aforestation – fertilizer management in dry lands – chemical organic
and biological fertilizers – contingency crops under very low rain fall conditions
– lowering evapo-transpirational losses – water shed – definition – objectives –
alternate land use methods – alley cropping – Agri-Silviculture, AgriHorticulture, Horti-pastural, Silvi-pastural, ley farming, tree farming.

22.HORTICULTURAL EXTENSION, TEACHING METHODS AND COMMUNICATION
SKILLS
Horticultural Extension – concepts, aim, objective – principles are effective
horticultural extension in villages – extension teaching methods – concept,
classifications – personal relations, group relations, community relations,
concept advantages and limitations – audio visual aids, concept, classification
their importance in extension – visual aids (posters, charts, flannel graphs,
flash cards) – horticultural information aids (leaflet, folder, circular, letter,
information bulletin) – concept, planning, preparation – audio aids – concept,
radio and tape recorder use in horticultural extension – communication skills –
English vocabulary, active and passive voice, direct and indirect speech, use of
articles, synonyms, antonyms, letter writing, referring dictionary, preparation of
bio data and preparation of reports.

Note:- Multiple choice objective type questions will be based on syllabus
prescribed for 2 years diploma course in Horticulture by Dr. YSR
Horticultural University, Andhra Pradesh.

 

PRACTICE PART-A

  • Scan the Entire Test
  • Focus on the Questions
  • Work with the Answers

Daily Current Affairs - Prepare it on daily basis and at the end of the week (Saturday) revise them.

Monthly current affairs - read them daily in 4 day slot. For example : if you are preparing the whole July month current affairs, today just read 1st-4th July current affairs, then tomorrow you will read 5th-8th July current affairs. In this way on the fourth day you have to revise all the three slots i.e. 1st-12th july

will have to ultimately depend upon your common sense which can be acquired through reading newspaper daily. So, don’t chase too many facts and figures

Reading current affairs daily makes you aware of what's happening around and prevents you from last minute mugging.

READ TODAY NEWS

PRACTICE PART-B

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